YOUTH GANG INVOLVEMENT
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS?
The vast majority of young people never get involved in crime or join gangs. Those who do join gangs tend to have specific risk factors that influence their involvement and membership in gangs.
To effectively prevent youth from joining gangs, it is essential to understand these risks.
What is a risk factor?
Risk factors can be defined as life events or experiences that are associated with an increase in problem behaviours, such as drug use or gang activities.
For an example, being the child of a single-parent who is often absent from the home and lacks adequate support, can be considered a risk factor. The negative influence of a friend or sibling can be another.
Risk factors can be divided into five categories:
Major risk factors
Long-term studies of adolescents in Canadian and American cities suggest that the most important risk factors for gang involvement include:
- Negative influences in the youth's life
- Limited attachment to the community
- Over-reliance on anti-social peers
- Alcohol and drug use
- Poor educational or employment potential
- A need for recognition and belonging
Evolving risk factors
Gang involvement is a process that happens over time. This process is influenced by the life trajectory and individual, familial and social experiences of a young person.
Several studies indicate that risk factors associated with gang involvement are present long before a youth joins a gang. For example, youths who were most behaviourally and socially maladjusted in childhood were found to be the most likely to join and stay in gangs for several years.
Unless appropriate actions are taken to address the factors that result in more serious crime or gang involvement, early negative life experiences and subsequent involvement in crime will only reinforce the path towards continued delinquency.
Additionally, it appears that not only entry into gangs, but also prolonged membership is associated with a greater risk of delinquency.
Risk factors and prevention
The identification of the specific risk factors associated with youth gang involvement helps us determine where and how to focus prevention efforts.
Briefly, we know that:
- The more risk factors that a youth experiences, the more likely he or she is to join a gang. Research also suggests that the presence of risk factors in multiple categories increases the probability of gang involvement.
- The increase in gang violence and crime in Aboriginal communities has been attributed in part to an increasing youth population, inadequate housing, drug and alcohol abuse, a high unemployment rate, lack of education, poverty, poor parenting skills, the loss of culture, language and identity and a sense of exclusion.
- Gang cohesion, culture and lifestyle are also important considerations. A study showed that gang members display higher rates of delinquent behaviour sand drug use than non-gang members.
Protective factors and prevention
In addition to preventing youth from joining gangs, it is important to reduce membership duration for youth who begong to a gang and to provide appropriate services (drug treatment, employment and educational opportunities) once they leave a gang.
Strengthening protective factors plays an important role in reducing youth gang involvement. Protective factors are positive influences that mitigate the impact of risk factors and decrease the likelihood of problem behaviour.
Drawing on evidence regarding gang prevention, some programs help increase protective factors among youth by:
- Building positive relationships and patterns with mentors and pro-social peers
- Creating positive social environments through community, family and service organizations, and
- Promoting social and economic policies that support positive youth development
Understanding why some young people join gangs while others do not is keye to effective prevention efforts.
Current research suggests the need to address specific risk factors that lead youth to violence and gangs. It is also important to enhance protective factors that can play a role in keeping youth out of gangs.
The above listed information was authored and published by the National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC) of Public Safety Canada. The NCPC is committed to developing and disseminating practical knowledge to address the problem of youth gangs. This information sheet is one of a series providing information related to youth gang involvement. It is designed to assist those who are concerned about youth gangs and who are working to help prevent youth from becoming involved in gangs or to help them leave gangs.