©2019 by the Toronto Police Service

40 College Street

Toronto, Ontario M5G 2J3




  1. Family disorganization, including broken homes and parental drug and/or alcohol abuse

  2. Family violence, neglect and drug addiction

  3. Family members in a gang

  4. Lack of adult and parental role models, parental criminality, parents with violent attitudes, siblings with anti-social behaviours

  5. Extreme economic deprivation


  1. Poor school performance

  2. Low education aspirations, especially among young females

  3. Negative labelling by teachers

  4. High levels of anti-social behaviour

  5. Few teacher role models

  6. Educational frustration

  7. Low attachment to school

  8. Learning difficulties


  1. High commitment to delinquent peers

  2. Street socialization
  3. Gang members in class
  4. Friends who use drugs or who are gang members
  5. Interaction with delinquent peers
  6. Pre-teen exposure to stress


  1. Prior delinquency

  2. Illegal gun ownership

  3. Drug trafficking

  4. Desire for group rewards such as status, identity, self-esteem, companionship and protection

  5. Anti-social attitudes

  6. Aggression

  7. Alcohol and drug use

  8. Early or precocious sexual activity

  9. Violent victimization


  1. Social disorganization, including high poverty and residential mobility

  2. High crime neighbourhood; neighbourhood youth in trouble

  3. Presence of gangs in the neighbourhood

  4. Availability or perceived access to drugs in the neighbourhood

  5. Availability of firearms

  6. Cultural norms supporting gang behaviour

  7. Feeling unsafe in a neighbourhood

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